ISO 22188:2004 specifies methods and means of monitoring for inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive material. It provides guidelines on the use of both stationary and portable (e.g. hand-held) instruments to monitor for radiation signatures from radioactive material. Emphasis is placed on the operational aspects, i.e. requirements derived for monitoring of traffic and commodities mainly at border-crossing facilities. Although the term border is used repeatedly in ISO 22188:2004, it is meant to apply not only to international land borders but also maritime ports, airports, and similar locations where goods or individuals are being checked. ISO 22188:2004 does not address the issue of detection of radioactive materials at recycling facilities, although it is recognized that transboundary movement of metals for recycling occurs, and that monitoring of scrap metals may be done at the borders of a state.
ISO 22188:2004 is applicable to regulatory authorities seeking guidance on implementation of action plans to combat illicit trafficking, to law enforcement agencies (e.g. border guards) to obtain guidelines on recommended monitoring procedures, and to equipment manufacturers in order to understand minimum requirements derived from operational necessities according to ISO 22188:2004.